Mars, by Mariner 4, July 1965

m04_01d.jpg
Mariner 4 image, the first close-up image ever taken of Mars. This shows an area about 330 km across by 1200 km from limb to bottom of frame, centered at 37 N, 187 W. The area is near the boundary of Elysium Planitia to the west and Arcadia Planitia to the east. The hazy area barely visible above the limb on the left side of the image may be clouds. This portion of the feature has been enhanced in image m04_01h to bring out more of the haze-like features. The resolution of this image is roughly 5 km and north is up. (Mariner 4, frame 01D)

Location & Time Information
Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:18
Distance/Range (km): 17,000.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): 37.0, 187.0 W
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: limb, albedo features
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: red
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 27
m04_01h.jpg
Mariner 4 image, the first close-up image ever taken of Mars. This shows an area about 330 km across by 1200 km from limb to bottom of frame, centered at 37 N, 187 W. The area is near the boundary of Elysium Planitia to the west and Arcadia Planitia to the east. The hazy area above the limb may be clouds. This image has been enhanced to bring out some of the details of this haze-like portion of the image, at the expense of resolution of the surface features. For a better view of the surface, see image m04_01d. The resolution of this image is about 5 km and north is up. (Mariner 4, frame 01H)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:18
Distance/Range (km): 17,000.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): 37.0, 187.0 W
Orbit(s): Flyby

Area or Feature Type: limb, albedo features
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: red
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 27
m04_02f.jpg
Mariner 4 image of the area centered at 25 N, 185 W at the border of Elysium Planitia and Amazonis Planitia. The top left quarter of this image overlaps the bottom right corner of frame 01. The picture was taken from 16,000 km and is about 500 km across and 900 km from top to bottom because the surface is curving away. North is up and the sun is illuminating the area from the southeast. (Mariner 4, frame 02F)
Full resolution size: 266k

Location & Time Information
Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:19
Distance/Range (km): 16,200.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): 25.1, 185.0 W
Orbit(s): Flyby

Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: albedo features
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: green
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 20.
Phase Angle (deg): N/A
Instrument Look Direction: N/A
Surface Emission Angle (deg): N/A
m04_03b.jpg
This Mariner 4 image of the Orcus Patera region was taken with the sun only 13 degrees from vertical, so the topography is difficult to discern. Some raised areas can be seen at upper left. Orcus Patera is located in western Amazonis Planitia. The image is 325 km across and 514 km from top to bottom, centered at 12 N, 182 W. The resolution is about 3 km and north is up. (Mariner 4, frame 03B)
Full resolution size: 403k
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Location & Time Information
Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:21
Distance/Range (km): 15,300.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): 11.9, 182.2 W
Orbit(s): Flyby


Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: crater
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: green
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 13.
m04_04b.jpg
Mariner 4 image showing an area on the western border of Amazonis Planitia, centered at 7 N, 181 W. The frame is 304 km across and 450 km from top to bottom. A few craters can be discerned, but the shading is subdued due to the high sun angle. The image was taken from 14,900 km and north is at 11:30. The top left corner of this image overlaps the lower right corner of image 3. (Mariner 4, frame 04B)
Full resolution size: 410k
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Location & Time Information
Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:22
Distance/Range (km): 14,900.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): 06.9, 180.9 W
Orbit(s): Flyby


Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: crater
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: red
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 14.
m04_05b.jpg
This Mariner 4 image taken from 14,300 km shows some craters in southern Amazonis Planitia. The image is 280 km across, 375 km from top to bottom and north is at 11:00. The sun is 19 degrees from vertical so some detail can be seen, but the shading is still rather subdued. The image is centered at 2 S, 179 W. (Mariner 4, frame 05B)

Location & Time Information
Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:23
Distance/Range (km): 14,300.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -01.8, 178.5 W
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: crater
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: red
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 19.
m04_06e.jpg
Mariner 4 image showing a dark feature in the southern Amazonis Planitia. The part of this feature at upper left is also visible in the lower right of image 5. The image was taken from 14,100 km and the frame is 273 km across and 349 km vertically. North is at 11:00. (Mariner 4, frame 06E)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:24
Distance/Range (km): 14,100.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -.05.8, 177.1
Orbit(s): Flyby
Area or Feature Type: albedo features
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: green
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 22.
m04_07b.jpg
With a range of 13,600 km and a sun angle of 29 degrees from zenith, this Mariner 4 image was the first picture showing unambiguous craters on the surface of Mars. The area, 262 x 310 km, is a heavily cratered region south of Amazonis Planitia, centered at 14 S, 174 W. North is at about 11:00. (Mariner 4, frame 07B)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:26
Distance/Range (km): 13,600.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -13.5, 174.2
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: craters
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: green
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 29.
m04_08e.jpg
This image, the 8th taken by Mariner 4, confirmed the craters found in image 7. (Image 8 overlaps in its top left corner with the lower right of image 7.) The image was taken from 13,400 and covers 255 km by 296 km. The two craters at the center of the image are about 32 km in diameter. North is about 11:00. (Mariner 4, frame 08E)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:27
Distance/Range (km): 13,400.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -17.1, 172.6 W
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: craters
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: red
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 32.
m04_09d.jpg
Mariner 4 image showing at least twenty craters of various sizes on Mars, resembling the lunar surface. The image was taken from 13,000 km and measures 253 by 225 km. The area is in western Memnonia Fossae, centered at 24 S, 169 W. The sun angle is 39 deg. from zenith, allowing some detail to be seen, including a central peak in the crater right of the center. North is at 11:30. (Mariner 4, frame 09D)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:28
Distance/Range (km): 13,000.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -23.7, 169.1
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: crater
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: red
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 39.
m04_10d.jpg
Mariner 4 image showing craters in the Memnonia Fossae region of Mars. The large crater cut off through the center at the right of the frame is the 156 km diameter Dejnev, centered at 25.6 S, 164.5 W. The image is 251 x 267 km and the upper left corner overlaps the lower right corner of image 9. North is at 11:30. (Mariner 4, frame 10D)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:29
Distance/Range (km): 12,800.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -26.8, 167.1
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: craters
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: green
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 42.
m04_11e.jpg
Mariner 4 image of the crater named after it, the 151 km diameter Mariner crater at 35 S, 164 W. Running from the lower left corner of the frame through the bottom of the crater is a linear ridge which is part of Sirenum Fossae. The image was taken from 12,600 km and covers 250 km by 254 km. North is up. (Mariner 4, frame 11E)

Mariner 4 was the first spacecraft to get a close look at Mars, flying as close as 9,846 kilometers (6,118 miles). Mariner 4 was launched on November 28, 1964 and arrived at Mars on July 14, 1965.


Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:31
Distance/Range (km): 12,600.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -32.7, 162.7 W
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: crater
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: green
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 47.
m04_12d.jpg
Mariner 4 image showing a relatively featureless area south of Sirenum Fossae on Mars. A few craters can be seen in the image, which is centered at 35 S, 160 W. The picture was taken from a range of 12,400 km and is 256 by 254 km. The upper left portion of this image overlaps the lower right of image 11. North is up. (Mariner 4, frame 12D)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:32
Distance/Range (km): 12,400.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -35.4, 160.0
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: crater
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: red
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 52.
m04_13d.jpg
Mariner 4 image of the southern highlands south of Sirenum Fossae taken during southern mid winter. The white rims of the craters may be due to frost or clouds, but the contrast is poor. The rim at upper left may be the edge of the crater Newton. The image was taken from 12,200 km and measures 254 km by 242 km. The sun is 58 degrees from zenith and North is up. (Mariner 4, frame 13D)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:33
Distance/Range (km): 12,200.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -40.1, 154.4 W
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: crater
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: red
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 58.
m04_14b.jpg
Mariner 4 image from 12,200 km showing craters in the southern highlands of Mars. The image is 257 km across and 240 km from top to bottom. The upper left corner overlaps with image 13. The sun is shining from the northeast (upper left) 61 degrees from zenith, and north is up. (Mariner 4, frame 14B)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:34
Distance/Range (km): 12,200.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -42.2, 151.1 W
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: crater
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: green
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 61.
m04_15e.jpg
Mariner 4 image showing an area of the southern highlands at 46 S, 144 W. Light levels were getting low at this point, so detail is difficult to pick out in the image and only indistinct features can be seen. The image was taken from 12,000 km and the frame is 266 km by 236 km. The sun was 67 degrees from zenith and north is at 12:30. (Mariner 4, frame 15E)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:35
Distance/Range (km): 12,000.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -46.0, 143.5
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: surface view
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: green
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 67.
m04_16d.jpg
Mariner 4 image of Mars near 48 S, 139 W. The lower light levels at this point necessitated high contrast enhancements for this image, which gives it its grainy, layered appearance. Individual features cannot be distinguished. The image was taken from 12,000 km and the frame is 273 x 236 km. The sun is 70 degrees from the zenith and north is at 12:30. (Mariner 4, frame 16D)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:36
Distance/Range (km): 12,000
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -47.6, 139.1
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: surface view
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: red
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 70
m04_17e.jpg
Mariner 4 image taken slightly before the spacecraft passed the terminator to the unlit portion of the planet. The sun was 76 degrees from zenith and light levels were low. High contrast enhancement applied to the image resulted in the layered appearance. The image was taken from 12,000 km and covers 292 km by 238 km. North is at 1:00. (Mariner 4, frame 17e)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:38
Distance/Range (km): 12,000.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -50.1, 128.7
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: Surface View
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: red
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 76.
m04_18e.jpg
No features can be distinguished in this Mariner 4 image of Mars because the sun was 80 degrees from zenith and light levels were too low. The extreme contrast enhancement used on this frame gives the blocky layered appearance. The image is 308 km by 242 km and was taken from 12,000 km. North is at 1:00. (Mariner 4, frame 18e)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:39
Distance/Range (km): 12,000.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -51.0, 122.3 W
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: surface view
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: green
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 80.
m04_19e.jpg
No features can be seen in this Mariner 4 frame except the terminator and night time region at lower right. The image was taken from 12,100 km showing an area 360 km by 258 km. The sun is 88 degrees from zenith and north is at about 1:30. Mariner 4 took 3 frames after this but all were in darkness and the final frame had only 22 lines. (Mariner 4, frame 19e)

Date/Time (UT): 1965-07-15 T 00:40
Distance/Range (km): 12,100.
Central Latitude/Longitude (deg): -51.2, 107.9
Orbit(s): Flyby
Imaging Information
Area or Feature Type: terminator
Instrument: Television camera
Instrument Resolution (pixels): 200 x 200, 6-bit
Instrument Field of View (deg): 1.05 x 1.05
Filter: green
Illumination Incidence Angle (deg): 88.
PIA02979.jpg PIA02980.jpg
Eleventh picture of Mars from Mariner 4 (in "raw" state) taken through the green filter from 7800 miles away showing a crater 75 miles in diameter in the Atlantis region.
Mariner 4 was the first spacecraft to get a close look at Mars. Flying as close as 9,846 kilometers (6,118 miles), Mariner 4 revealed Mars to have a cratered, rust-colored surface, with signs on some parts of the planet that liquid water had once etched its way into the soil.
Mariner 4 was launched on November 28, 1964 and arrived at Mars on July 14, 1965.